The suspension system is located between the vehicle body and the wheels, and is designed to absorb shock from the road surface, increasing the driving pleasure and stability and improving the wheel's grip on the road.
Suspension consists of spring, shock absorber, stabilizer, and so on. Generally, the suspension can be classified into rigid suspension type (rigid axle suspension) and independent suspension type.
In the rigid type suspension, the left and right wheels are connected by a single axle. Axle is connected to body and frame through spring (leaf springs or coil spring). Rigid suspension is widely used on the front and rear wheels of buses and trucks also on the rear wheels of passenger cars. This is because the construction is strong and simple.
In independent suspension models, the left and right wheels are not connected directly to a single axle. Both wheels can move freely without affecting each other. Usually this free model suspension is used on the front wheels of passenger cars and small trucks. Now the free model suspension is also used on the rear wheels of passenger cars.
Suspension connects the vehicle body with wheels and functions as follows.
1. During walking, the vehicle together with the wheel, absorbs vibration, oscillation of the shock and from the road surface. This is to protect passengers and goods to be safe, and add comfort and stability.
2. Move the braking force and motion force to the body through friction between the road with the wheels.
3. Support the body on the axle and maintain geometric position between the body and the wheels.