Fruit rose (rose hips)
Flowers produce an aggregate fruit (evolved from one flower with many pistils) called rose hips. Each pistil develops into a single fruit (achene), while a single fruit collection is wrapped in fruit flesh on the outside. Species with wide open flowers are more inviting the arrival of bees or other insects that help pollinate so tend to produce more fruit. Rose breeding yields flowers whose crown leaves seal tightly making it difficult to pollinate. Some roses are red with some exceptions such as Rosa pimpinellifolia that produce dark purple to black fruits. In some species such as Rosa canina and Rosa rugosa produce very rich rose hips with vitamin C even among the richest natural vitamin C sources. The rose hips are favored by fruit-eating birds that help spread the seeds of roses with impurities removed. Some bird species like the Finch also eat the seeds of roses. In general, roses have a hook-shaped spine that serves as a handle when climbing other plants. Some species that grow wild in sandy soils in coastal areas such as Rosa rugosa and Rosa pimpinellifolia adapt to straight thorns such as needles that might serve to reduce the damage caused by animal feeding, retaining wind-blown sand and protecting the roots from erosion. Although it is protected by thorns, deer do not seem afraid and often damage the rose plants. Some species of roses have undeveloped thorns and are not sharp. Roses can be infected with several diseases such as rust leaves which is the most serious disease. The cause is a fungus Phragmidium mucronatum which causes leaf loss. Less dangerous diseases such as Mildew Flour are caused by the Sphaerotheca pannosa fungus, whereas the Black Spotted disease is characterized by black spots on the leaves caused by the Diplocarpon rosae fungus. Roses are also a food for larvae of several species of Lepidoptera. Roses flourish in temperate climates although some cultivars that are the result of grafting methods can grow in subtropical climates to tropical climates. As well as cut flowers, roses have many benefits, including antidepressants, antivirals, antibacterials, anti-inflammatories, and source of vitamin C. Rose oil is one of the essential oils of distillation and evaporation of leavesmahkota so it can be made into perfume. Roses can also be used for tea, jelly, and jam.