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Heidelberg Castle ( it. Heidelberger Schloss , it. Schloss Heidelberg ) the main residence of the Electors of the Palatinate until the end of the XVII century. The castle towers above the city of Heidelberg on the northern slope of the Königstuhl mountain.

The castle was destroyed by the troops of Louis XIV during the war for the Palatinate heritage and only partially restored. In its basements the largest wine barrel in the world is kept.

Heidelberg Castle was first mentioned in the document of 1225 in the document of 1294 there was a speech about one castle and in the document of 1303 there are already mentioned two castles the upper and lower ones, historians say that the first castle was built and the modern Heidelberg castle is the lower And the estimated time of its foundation is between 1294 and 1303 years. In 1415, a captive antipope John XXIII languished in the castle.

From 1689 to 1693 the troops of Louis XIV repeatedly attacked Heidelberg finally turning the castle into ruins in 1693. In the following decades the castle remained dilapidated despite some attempts at restoration. There were plans to demolish the castle and use its parts to build a palace in the valley. At the same time the Palatinate ruler Charles III Philip had ideas for rebuilding the castle but there was not enough money to carry out the project. In 1720 as a result of the conflict with the Protestant population of the city he transferred his residence to the Mannheim Palace and finally lost interest in the city and the castle.

The savior of the ruins of the castle was the French Count Charles de Gremberg the enemy of the point of view of the Baden government, who considered the castle an old ruin with many tasteless collapsing ornaments. Visiting Heidelberg at the beginning of the XIX century he stayed in the city for the remaining 54 years of his life devoting himself to voluntary supervision of the remains of the castle. He also initiated the publication of the first guide to the castle with illustrations that attracted many tourists.

For a long time the question of complete or partial restoration of the castle was discussed. By 1890, experts prepared a plan for the restoration and preservation of the ruins. It was decided that restoration is impossible but it is possible to strengthen the remaining parts of the castle. Restoration suffered only part of Friedrichsbau damaged by fire but never destroyed. The reconstruction valued at 520,000 marks was carried out from 1897 to 1900 by Karl Schaefer.

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