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Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Thai: ศรีวิชัย rtgs: Siwichai, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i Chinese: 三佛齐)[1]:131 was a dominant thalassocratic city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.[2] Srivijaya was an important centre for the expansion of Buddhism from the 8th to the 12th century. Srivijaya was the first unified kingdom to dominate much of Malay archipelago.[3] In Sanskrit, śrī means "fortunate", "prosperous", or "happy" and vijaya means "victorious" or "excellence".[4]

The earliest reference to it dates from the 7th century. A Tang Chinese monk, Yijing, wrote that he visited Srivijaya in 671 CE for six months.[5][6] The earliest known inscription in which the name Srivijaya appears also dates from the 7th century in the Kedukan Bukit inscription found near Palembang, Sumatra, dated 16 June 682 CE.[7] Between the late 7th and early 11th century, Srivijaya rose to become a hegemon in Southeast Asia. It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Java, Kambuja and Champa. Srivijaya's main foreign interest was nurturing lucrative trade agreements with China which lasted from the Tang to the Song dynasty. Srivijaya had religious, cultural and trade links with the Buddhist Pala of Bengal, as well as with the Islamic Caliphate in the Middle East.
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