Some Viola species are perennial plants, some are annual plants and a few are small shrubs. A large number of species, varieties and cultivars are grown in gardens for their ornamental flowers. In horticulture the term pansy is normally used for those multi-coloured large-flowered cultivars which are raised annually or biennially from seed and used extensively in bedding. The terms viola and violet are normally reserved for small-flowered annuals or perennials including the species.
Viola typically have heart-shaped scalloped leaves though a number have palmate leaves or other shapes. The vast majority of Viola species are herbaceous and a substantial number are acaulescent in habit meaning they lack any noticeable stems and the foliage and flowers appear to rise from the ground the remaining species have short stems with foliage and flowers produced in the axils of the leaves. The simple leaves of plants with either habit are arranged alternately the acaulescent species produce basal rosettes. Plants always have leaves with stipules that are often leaf-like.
The flowers of the vast majority of the species are zygomorphic with bilateral symmetry. The flowers are formed from five petals four are upswept or fan-shaped petals with two per side and there is one broad lobed lower petal pointing downward. The shape of the petals and placement defines many species for example some species have a spur on the end of each petal while most have a spur on the lower petal.
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